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HORMONE AND ENDOCRINE MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY

Terms and Concepts used in Endocrinology

Hormone Therapy for The Treatment of Endocrine Disorders and Age Related Health Issues


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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP): This is the primary fuel used by cells to generate the biochemical reactions essential for life.

Adrenals: The glands located on the top of the kidneys that are responsible for the production of stress-related hormones, such as cortisol, DHEA, and adrenaline.

Adrenocortiotrophic Hormone (ACTH): The hormone released from the pituitary gland that interacts with receptors on the adrenal gland to begin the process of cortisol and DHEA production. ACTH uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to signal target cells in the adrenal gland.

Adrenaline: A stress hormone produced within the adrenal gland that quickens the heart beat, strengthens the force of the heart's contraction, and opens up the bronchioles in the lungs, among other effects. The secretion of adrenaline is part of the human fight or flight response to fear, panic, or perceived threat also known as epinephrine.

Adrenal Cortex: The outer portion of the adrenal gland located on top of each kidney. The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones which regulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism and mineralocorticoid hormones which regulate salt and water balance in the body. Underfunction of the adrenal cortex results in Addison disease while overfunction occurs in the adrenogenital syndrome and in Cushing syndrome.

Advanced Glycosylation Endproduct: The polymerized end products of protein cross-linked with glucose. AGE's tend to adhere to capillaries and arteries increasing the risk of heart disease, blindness, and kidney failure. AGE's are best estimated by the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in the bloodstream.

Aerobic Capacity: The body's ability to process oxygen. It is a combination of lung capacity, the size of the capillaries, the pumping action of the heart, and transfer of oxygen from red blood cells to target tissues.

Aerobic Exercise: Exercise with a low enough intensity to facilitate adequate oxygen transfer to the muscle cells so that no buildup of lactic acid is observed. This type of exercise is useful for reducing insulin levels and lowering blood glucose.

Aging: The general deterioration of the body with increasing age.

Amino Acids: These are the building blocks of protein. There are eight essential amino acids the body cannot make and, therefore, must be included in the foods you eat.

Amygdala: The portion of the limbic system in the brain that processes emotions.

Anaerobic Exercise: Exercise at an intensity that exceeds the ability to supply oxygen to the muscle cells leading to the buildup of lactic acid. Anaerobic exercise stimulates the synthesis of both growth hormone and testosterone.

Anabolic Steroids: Synthetic analogs of testosterone that maintain the anabolic (i.e. muscle-building effects) while reducing the virilization effects of testosterone.

Anti-aging Zone Lifestyle Pyramid: The combination of the Zone Diet, moderate exercise, and meditation that interact to reduce the four pillars of aging (excess insulin, excess blood glucose, excess free radicals, and excess cortisol). Of the three components of the Anti-aging Zone Lifestyle Pyramid, the Zone Diet is by far the most important.

Arachidonic Acid: An essential fatty acid that is the immediate precursor to "bad" eicosanoids found in fatty red meats, egg yolks, and organ meats.

Aromatase Inhibitor (AI's): Estrogen Antagonists are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men. Aromatase inhibitors are also used to reduce estrogen conversion during a testosterone cycle because excess testosterone is converted to estrogen by the aromatase enzyme in men. In women, the aromatase enzyme synthesizes estrogen, and since breast and ovarian cancers require estrogen to grow, AIs are taken to either block the production of estrogen or block the action of estrogen on receptor cells.

Autocrine Hormones: Hormones that act upon the secreting cell. They are used to sample the immediate environment surrounding the cell. Eicosanoids are the best-known example of autocrine hormones.

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)
The natural enlargement of normal prostate tissue as a man ages. As the prostate enlarges, men usually have difficulty urinating

Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to water-soluble hormones, such as sex hormones, cortisol, and thyroid; or certain water-soluble proteins, such as insulin-like growth factor to maintain stable circulating levels of the hormone in the bloodstream.

Biological Marker of Aging: Any physiological marker that appears to be universal in an aging population.

Biological Response Modifier: Any molecule that can modify the biological response of cells to changes in its external environment.

Blood Glucose: The primary source of energy for the brain. Elevated blood glucose levels cause diabetes and accelerate aging.

Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are formed from varied molecules. They are usually crystals of one or another molecule, but may be formed of combinations of elements or rarely protein matrix. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of stone. These stones are usually easy to see on x-ray and cannot be dissolved.

Calorie Restriction: The reduction of calories that maintains adequate levels of protein and essential fats while also supplying adequate amounts of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals).

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH): The hormone released from the hypothalamus that interacts with the pituitary to produce ACTH. This hormone uses cyclic AMP for its second messenger.

Cortisol: The hormone released from the adrenal glands in response to stress or low blood glucose. Its primary mode of action in the times of stress is to shut down eicosanoid synthesis. Its synthesis in the adrenal gland requires the second messenger, cyclic AMP.

Cyclic AMP: A second messenger that begins the biological response initiated by a hormone. Cyclic AMP is derived from ATP. Many endocrine hormones use cyclic AMP as their second messenger.

Cyclic GMP: A second messenger that begins the biological response initiated by a hormone. Cyclic GMP is the second messenger induced by nitric oxide.

Dehdroepiandrosterone (DHEA): A steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands. Its primary function is to inhibit the binding of cortisol.

Diabetes: A condition in which blood glucose is not well controlled. Type I diabetics make no insulin, whereas Type II diabetics are characterized by the overproduction of insulin, but the inability of the target cells to respond to the insulin.

Dopamine: A neurotransmitter that works in an axis with serotonin.

Eicosanoid: A hormone derived from a 20-carbon atom, polyunsaturated fat. Eicosanoids are made by every cell in the body. As autocrine hormones, they are constantly produced by the cell to sample the external environment. "Good" eicosanoids generate AMP.

Endocrine Hormones: Hormones that are secreted from a discrete gland and then travel through the bloodstream to target tissues.

Endocrinology: The study of hormones. A more inclusive definition would be the study of biological communications.

Endocytosis: The process by which extracellular molecules (including hormones) enter a cell.

Endothelial Cells: The cells that line the vascular system. They act as a barrier between the bloodstream and target cells that hormones must pass through in order to reach their receptors and exert their biological action.

B-Endorphin: A hormone derived from the pituitary that induces opiate-like responses to decrease pain. The release of its precursor hormone (B-lipotropin) requires cyclic AMP.

Essential Fatty Acids: These are the fats the body cannot make and therefore must be part of the diet. Essential fatty acids are also the building blocks of eicosanoids. There are two groups, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, each gives rise to a different group of eicosanoids.

Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
Male erectile dysfunction, (ED), or impotence is the inability for a sexually active male to obtain and sustain an erection for sexual purposes.

Estrogens: A group of three steroid hormones that convey female characteristics and control fertilization. The production of estrogen is stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which uses cyclic AMP as its second messenger.

Exocytosis: The process by which intracellular chemicals (including hormones) are released.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) The hormone released from the pituitary that stimulates estrogen production in females, and sperm production in males. FSH uses cyclic AMP as its second messenger. The Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein that is synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland to regulate the development, growth, and reproductive processes of the body. FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction and in male and female hormonal feedabck loops.

Free Radical: Any molecule that contains an unpaired electron. Free radicals are unstable and will extract electrons from other biological molecules, which generates more free radicals.

Functionality: The ability to live in an unassisted fashion.

Gland: A discrete organ responsible for the secretion of hormones. There are nine separate glands in the body. Three are in the brain (hypothalamus, pineal, and pituitary), three are in the throat area (thyroid, thymus, and parathyroid), two are in the midsection (pancreas and adrenals), and one is in the gonad area (testes for males and ovaries for females).

Glucagon: The hormone from the pancreas that causes the release of stored carbohydrate in the liver to restore blood glucose levels. Glucagon uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to exert its biological action.

Glucose: The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Glucose Tolerance: The ability of muscle cells and the liver to remove glucose from the bloodstream. As you age, glucose tolerance decreases.

Glycemic Index: A measure of the rate at which a carbohydrate will enter the bloodstream as glucose. Some simple sugars, like table sugar, will enter the bloodstream slower than many complex carbohydrates, such as bread, rice, and potatoes. The faster a carbohydrate enters the bloodstream, the higher its glycemic index. The higher the glycemic index of a carbohydrate, the greater the increase in insulin levels. Fruits and vegetables tend to have a low glycemic index, whereas breads, pasta, grains, and starches tend to have a high glycemic index.

Glycogen: The storage form of glucose. Only glycogen from the liver can be used to restore blood glucose levels.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin: A measure of the long-term control of blood glucose determined by the amount of carbohydrate-modified hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The higher the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin, the worse the control of blood glucose levels.

Growth Hormone: The hormone released from the pituitary that interacts with fat cells to release fatty acids and also the liver to produce insulin-like growth factors.

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH): The hormone released from the hypothalamus that causes the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. GHRH uses cyclic AMP as its second messenger.

Hematuria
This is the presence of red blood cells in an urine specimen. It can be associated with kidney disease, an urinary tract infection, kidney stone, trauma, cancer of the urinary tract, and is sometimes normal. Special tests are ordered to rule out any serious medical problems
.

HGH, the Human Growth Hormone: Somatropin Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. rDNA Somatropin is a recombinant DNA technology used to produce a bio-identical form of endogenous growth hormone.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL): The "good" cholesterol that helps remove cholesterol from cells. If insulin levels go up, then HDL levels go down. The lower your HDL level, the more likely you are to suffer cardiovascular complications.

Hippocampus: The portion of the limbic system in the brain that integrates incoming nerve impulses to the hypothalamus, and is also the memory center of the brain.

Hormones: Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

Hormonal (PCa)
Hormonal therapy is based on the fact that prostate cancer cells frequently use the male hormone, testosterone, as fertilizer, and the absence of testosterone leads to the death or weakening, (apoptosis), of many, but not all, prostate cancer cells.As a result, many patients with incurable prostate cancer, (Stage D and late Stage C), can have their life extended and quality of life improved by the use of hormonal therapy.

Hormone Releasing Factors: Hormones released from the hypothalamus that directly affect the pituitary and initiate the release of other hormones into the bloodstream. Many hormone releasing factors use cyclic AMP as their secondary messengers.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG): - hCG is a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast which is a portion of the placenta following implantation. and helps support the normal development of an egg in a woman's ovary, as well as stimulates the release of the egg.

Hyperinsulinemia: The excess production of insulin. This is usually a consequence of insulin resistance in which the cells do not respond to insulin to reduce blood glucose levels.

Hypothalamus: The portion of the brain's limbic system that integrates incoming information and either increases or decreases the release of certain hormones that instruct the pituitary gland to release hormones.

Hypothyroidism: A thyroid dysfunction is often called underactive thyroid or low thyroid and sometimes hypothyreosis, is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, and weight gain.

Incontinence
Incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. Babies are incontinent until their nervous systems mature and they learn to control their urine flow. Incontinence can occur to males and females, old and young. It can be mild or severe. It usually can be treated

Hypopituitarism: Pituitary dysfunction is characterized by the decreased secretion of one or more of the eight hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.

Insulin: The hormone that drives incoming nutrients into cells for storage. Excess insulin is the primary pillar of aging.

Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF): The hormone released from the liver in response to growth hormone. IGF-1 is the hormone responsible for building muscle.

Insulin Resistance: A condition in which the cells no longer respond well to insulin. As a result, the body secretes more insulin into the bloodstream in an effort to reduce blood glucose levels.

Impotence (Erectile Dysfunction)
The condition where a man can not achieve or maintain an erection suitable for sexual relations. Impotence can be caused by stress or psychological factors; however, it is more frequently associated with medical problems such as diabetes, elevated cholesterol, hypertension, heart disease, numerous medications, and other causes.

Interstitial Space: The space between the endothelial cells and target cells, such as the liver or the smooth muscle cells that line the vascular bed.

Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
A special x-ray test of the kidneys where an iodine dye is injected into the veins. The dye is absorbed by the kidneys and excreted into the bladder. This x-ray test can identify tumors of the kidney, ureter, and bladder. Also, it may help identify a kidney stone.

Lean Body Mass: The total body weight minus the fat mass. Lean body mass consists of water, bones, collagen, and muscle.

Life Expectancy: The average age at which 50 percent of newborn children survive.

Limbic System: The part of the brain that is concerned with more primitive impulses and maintaining biological homeostasis.

Longevity: The percentage of the maximum life span that an organism will reach before it dies.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH): The hormone released from the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of testosterone in males and the production of progesterone in females. This hormone uses cyclic AMP as its second messenger. LH controls the length and sequence of the female menstrual cycle, including ovulation, preparation of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg, and ovarian production of both estrogen and progesterone. In males, LH stimulates the testes to produce androgen through the specialized cells in the testes called Leydig cells and also known as interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH).

Kidney Stones
Most urinary tract stones originate as crystals in the kidney, grow within the kidney, and then migrate or pass through the urinary tract. Stones can also start and/or grow within the bladder. Bladder stones are often associated with chronic urinary blockage or infection, or severe protein starvation sometimes seen in the third world. Prostate stones grow within the prostate, probably as a result of infection. Prostate stones do not migrate or pass.

Kidney stones are formed from varied molecules. They are usually crystals of one or another molecule, but may be formed of combinations of elements or rarely protein matrix. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of stone. These stones are usually easy to see on x-ray and cannot be dissolved.

Macronutrient: Any food that contains calories and, therefore, can generate hormonal responses. Protein, carbohydrate, and fat are macronutrients.

Maximum Life Span: The longest period of life that an animal can expect to reach.

Melatonin: The hormone made in the pineal gland that controls circadian rhythms. It is also a powerful antioxidant for hydroxyl free radicals.

Metabolism: The biochemical processes that occurs within the body to convert food to energy. Metabolism consists of anabolism or ababolic processes that build up substances and catabolism or catabolic processes that breakdown substances. The term metabolism with regards to nutrition and endocrine function are breakdown or synthesis of food and glucose and its transformation into energy.

Micronutrient: Vitamins and minerals that have no caloric value and little direct impact on hormonal response.

Mortality Doubling Time: The amount of time required for the death rate to double after reaching adulthood.

Nitric Oxide: A protohormone that generates cyclic GMP. Nitric oxide is a free radical.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: A special type of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids found primarily in cold-water fish and purified fish oils. This type of fat is exceptionally beneficial to your cardiovascular system because of its effect on promoting the formation of "good" eicosanoids.

Omega-6 Fatty Acids: The type of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in protein and most seed oils. This type of fat can generate both "good" and "bad" eicosanoids.

Penile Prosthesis
This is a semi-rigid implantable device inserted into the penile chambers to treat and fix severe cases of impotence or Peyronie's Disease. The procedure can be performed in an outpatient surgery center.

Percentage Body Fat: This describes the percentage of your total weight that is composed of fat. The higher your percentage of body fat, the greater the likelihood of chronic disease, such as heart disease, cancer, or diabetes.

Peyronie's Disease
The condition where there is scarring following injury to the tunica albuginea (the wall of the penile chamber) or for unknown reasons. As the scar tissue increases in size, it can squeeze and deform the penis where there is bending or angulation of the penile chambers. The Peyronie's scar can result in shortening of the penis and loss of erection.

Pineal: The gland located within the brain that synthesizes melatonin.

Pituitary: The gland from which a number of hormones are released into the bloodstream. These hormones include growth hormone, ACTH, B-lipocortin (the precursor to B-endorphorin), FSH, LH, and TSH.

Priapism
A prolonged erection that will not subside naturally. Priapism is most often associated with penile injection therapy where the erection will can last more than 4 hours. It is also associated with Sickle Cell anemia and may occur after taking Trazodone.

Progesterone: Progesterone regulates cyclical changes in the endometrium of the female's uterus and maintains a pregnancy. it is a hormone produced in response to luteinizing hormone (LH) released from pituitary gland. It is required to flush out the uterus if an egg is not fertilized. It is also useful for stimulating the growth of new bone mass.

Progestins: Synthetic analogs of progesterone that have some of the properties of natural progesterone.

PSA Blood Test
PSA stands for Prostatic Specific Antigen, a special blood test that can help detect prostate cancer. PSA is frequently elevated in prostate cancer and can be the first sign of this illness.

Prostate Gland
This is a gland about the size of a walnut that sits at the base of the bladder. The prostate gland makes nutrients that support the sperm. As a man ages, the prostate gland can enlarge causing urinary difficulties (BPH) or form prostate cancer.

Prostatitis
Prostatitis is an inflamation of the prostate gland and is a common condition affecting many, if not most, men at some time in their lives. Like sinusitis, it can be acute, chronic, infectious, allergic, inflammatory or even psychosomatic. While frequently disquieting and unpleasant it is rarely serious or life threatening. There is no relationship between prostatitis and prostate cancer! Contrary to folklore, prostatitis, no matter how severe or long lasting, has not been shown to lead to prostate cancer. There are three general types of prostatitis, bacterial prostatitis, the most common type, generally associated with a bacterial infection ; non-bacterial or inflammatory prostatitis, when no infection is present; and prostatosis , or chronic pain in the prostate a subset of non-bacterial prostatitis.

Receptor: A molecule that recognizes a unique hormone. Once that hormone is bound to the receptor, the information carried by the hormone can now exert its biological action.

Second Messenger: Molecules that are synthesized in response to hormones binding to their receptors. Second messengers initiate the biological action of the hormone.

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs): are a class of compounds that act on the estrogen receptor cells. These chemical compounds selectively block the effects of estrogen in specific receptor cells, for example; the breast tissue. SERMs work by sitting in the estrogen receptors so there is no room for the estrogen hormone to attach itself to the cell. These are known as estrogen blockers.

Semen Analysis
Evaluation of the sperm and seminal fluid. The number and motility of the sperm is evaluated, infection is ruled out, the volume and acidity of the fluid is assessed.

Seminal Vesicles
There are normally two seminal sacs or vesicles that lie behind the prostate where they collect fluid made by the prostate. This fluid becomes the seminal fluid that is ejaculated by a man when he is sexually active. The fluid transports and nourishes the sperm.

Serotonin: A neurotransmitter important in filtering out information. If its levels are low, it can be the underlying cause of depression and violence.

Steroid: A steroid is an organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific configuration. Examples include the dietary lipid cholesterol, the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone (male sex hormone androgen) and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone. Steroids have two principal biological functions: certain steroids such as cholesterol are important components of cell membranes which alter membrane fluidity, and many steroids are signaling molecules which activate steroid hormone receptors. (It is illegal for unauthorized manufacturers to produce anabolic steroids or prohormones that increase testosterone in the USA*)

Steroidogenesis: Human steroidogenesis is the biological process by which steroids are generated from cholesterol and changed into other steroids. Changes in molecular structure from a precursor result in steroid hormones and individual steroids via enzymatic pathways.

Struvite Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are formed from varied molecules. They are usually crystals of one or another molecule, but may be formed of combinations of elements or rarely protein matrix. Struvite or infection stones are typically associated with chronic urinary infection and should be looked for in patients with urinary tract infection that is difficult to clear. Struvite stones are usually visible on x-ray studies. Unfortunately, in the early stages only bladder symptoms may occur and the stones may progress silently, growing to fill the kidney, (staghorn calculus), and possibly destroy it.

Telomer: A small segment at the end of nuclear DNA that becomes shorter with every replication of the DNA. DNA will no longer replicate beyond a certain point of telomere reduction.

Testosterone: The hormone that promotes the building of muscle mass in males and libido in both sexes.

Thymus: The gland responsible for the production of certain white cells known as T-lymphocytes that are important for immune function. The thymus is very sensitive to excess cortisol.

Thyroid: The gland in the throat that synthesizes thyroid hormones that affect metabolism. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits on the lower portion in front of the neck. The thyroid gland secretes several types of thyroid hormones that work together to control important body functions. The main thyroid hormone is thyroxine, also called T4. Thyroid hormones act as chemical messengers throughout the body influencing metabolism, energy, weight, water retention, growth, development, and body temperature.

Thyroid-Releasing Hormone (TRH): The hormone released from the hypothalamus that instructs the pituitary to release TSH.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): The hormone released from the pituitary that causes the thyroid gland to produce T4 hormone. TSH uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to initiate the synthesis of T4.

Trans Rectal Ultrasound (TRUS)
TRUS is an examination where a finger-like probe is placed in the rectum, and ultrasound pictures are made of the prostate. TRUS is an even more fuzzy test than the Prostatic Specific Antigen. It is very helpful in directing biopsies to areas of high suspicion, but TRUS is non-diagnostic . It may give information about prostate size, shape, and significant local spread of prostate cancer, but it cannot make or deny the diagnosis of prostate cancer. TRUS should never be done as an isolated test, but only when a biopsy is to be done.

Triglycerides (TG): The form of fat found in various lipoproteins in the bloodstream. High levels of triglycerides are usually indicative of high levels of insulin. The ratio of TG/HDL is a powerful indicator of insulin levels and is strongly predictive of future cardiovascular events.

Type 2 Diabetes: A diabetic condition characterized by the overproduction of insulin (hyperinsulinemia), increased AGE production, and decreased longevity.

T3: The active form of T4 synthesized in the peripheral tissue.

T4: The thyroid hormone that is released from the thyroid gland in response to TSH, which generates cyclic AMP.

Uric Acid Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are formed from varied molecules. They are usually crystals of one or another molecule, but may be formed of combinations of elements or rarely protein matrix. Uric acid stones are common in people with gout and in people who excrete large amounts of uric acid in the urine. Uric acid stones can not be seen on x-ray, and require special tests, such as an IVP, (x-rays with injected contrast), spiral CT scans or sonography to be found. Uric acid stones can be due to family factors, various medical conditions or diets very high in animal proteins. This is the only stone that can be reliably dissolved with medical treatment.

Ventromedial Nucleus (VMN): The part of the hypothalamus sensitive to excess glucose.

Varicocoele
Dilation of the veins draining blood from the testicle back to the body. There is increased blood and heat around the testicle thus causing injury to the sperm. A varicocoele can be treated by surgery.

Vasectomy
The surgical process of male birth control. The vas tubes which carry the sperm are interrupted. Vasectomy can be performed as an out-patient with the "No-scalpel Technique" which is less traumatic.

Vas Deferens
The tube that carries the sperm from the epididymis and testicle to the penis. The tube has thick muscles to move the sperm along the trac

Xanthine Kidney Stones
Kidney stones are formed from varied molecules. They are usually crystals of one or another molecule, but may be formed of combinations of elements or rarely protein matrix. Xanthine or Cysteine stones are rare. They may be hereditary in origin or related to certain medical conditions or medications. They are variable in visibility on x-ray, and require specialized treatment to treat.

Zone Diet: A calorie-restricted diet that provides adequate protein, moderate levels of carbohydrates along with essential fats, and micronutrients spread throughout the day into three meals and two snacks that approximately maintain the protein-to-carbohydrate ratio throughout the day.

 

* Types of Steroids - Anabolic steroids are synthetic substances that are derivitives of the anabolic male sex hormone, testosterone. Steroids work to boost the growth of muscle mass along with the development of male sexual characteristics in men. Anabolic steroids and testosterone supplements are mostly used by bodybuilders, weightlifters and other athletes seeking sports performance enhancement.

  • Anadrol
  • Anavar
  • Clenbuterol
  • Clomid
  • Cytomel
  • Testosterone
  • Deca Durabolin
  • Dianabol
  • Equipoise
  • Halotestin
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • Trenbolone
  • Insulin
  • Lasix
  • Methyltestosterone
  • Nolvadex
  • Omnadren
  • Winstrol
  • Primobolan
  • Sustanon
  • Cypionate
  • Enanthate
  • Propionate


* Types of Prohormones - A prohormone refers to a precursor of a hormone, usually having minimal hormonal effect by itself. Prohormones amplify the effects of existing hormones with examples of natural human prohormones, proinsulin and pro-opiomelanocortin. For peptide hormones such as Human Growth Hormone - (HGH), Sermorelin (Sermorelin Acetate) and GHRP, the conversion process from prohormone to hormone typically occurs after export to the endoplasmic reticulum and often requires multiple processing enzymes. Proamylin is cosecreted with proinsulin and while Vitamin D is sometimes given as an example of a prohormone or a hormone, it is not as is Melatonin.

The term Prohormone may be considered oral medications designed for athletes to affect their hormone levels. For small molecule hormones in the body the conversion from prohormone to hormone can be one step, and is therefore often used to help regulate hormone levels. Some prohormones are now considered to be an anabolic steroid which means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone other than estrogens, progestins, corticosteroids and dehydroepiandrosterone.

  • Helladrol
  • HD 50
  • SD 20
  • DMZ 13
  • M1-D
  • Methastadrol
  • Super-DMZ Rx
  • Tri Methyl-X 2010
  • MethylDrol
  • MassFire
  • EpiFire
  • Raptor
  • Androdrol
  • Tren13-Ethyl
  • Epistane
  • Halotest-25
  • Superbolan 20
  • Mastavol
  • Phenylvar
  • Boladrol
  • H-Drol
  • Methyl Halobolin
  • P-Mag
  • Furuza-A
  • D-Zine
  • Stano-Drol
  • Halo-Plex
  • Dianavar
  • WIN 50
  • MegaPlexx
  • Furazabolin
  • Dimethabolin
  • Mega H
  • Chlorovar
  • Halostane
  • Tri-Methyl Xtreme 3.15
  • Primabol
  • P-Stanz
  • SOS 500
  • Protomax
  • Megavol
  • Trenavol-V
  • Phorce
  • Phreak
  • MX 75
  • Pro-Stanivar
  • Halovar InSLINsified
  • 1-ANDRO Rx
  • Katanadrol v2.0
  • Epi Xtreme
  • Epivar
  • Testadrol Extreme
  • eMass 3x
  • Havoc
  • Monster Plexx
  • Epi-Strong
  • Beastdrol
  • Forged: Epi
  • Methyl Depot
  • Dimethadrol
  • Mutate
  • Splice
  • Size 350
  • M-Stane
  • Epi 2A3A
  • Bolasterol Mass
  • eMonster
  • Stakabol
  • P-Stane
  • Testadrol 50
  • Trenazone
  • Xtreme Anabolic Stack
  • Kronic
  • Mass Plex
  • Ultradrol
  • Mechabol
  • Halo for Her
  • Mentabolan
  • Freakazol
  • Dieselbolan v2
  • Wicked 50
  • Methyl Tren 550
  • Winnivar Extreme
  • Mass Construction
  • Xtreme Definitions
  • Halo Exteme
  • Xtreme Shred
  • Dymethaberry Steel Crushers
  • MethoxyVol
  • Alpha One
  • Mastedrol
  • ErgoTropin
  • Tri-Methyl X.X.XXV Limited Edition
  • Extreme Mass
  • Xtreme Triple Stack
  • SUS 500 Black
  • Goliath
  • Xtreme Epi-drol
  • SD
  • EP Stane
  • Finaflex 550-XD
  • 5 Deca Zol
  • Super DMZ Rx 2.0
  • Estrastain
  • Powerdrol 10
  • S-Roid
  • Epi Maxx
  • Straight Epi
  • Supernova H4
  • Methylzine
  • Halotren
  • Epitest
  • Cyanostane Rx
  • Reign
  • Sledge
  • Metha-drol Extreme
  • Deca-Drol Max
  • Xtreme Rage
  • DMZ-1
  • Halo-V
  • DecaFire
  • SUST 250
  • M1,4ADD
  • 7-Ment Alpha
  • D-Plex
  • Mutant Plexx
  • Tribol 60
  • Xtreme Tren SD
  • Pro Trenazine
  • Halo Suspension
  • Methyl Masterzine
  • Winabol
  • EQ-Plex
  • Vengeance
  • Delta 2
  • H-Roid
  • Mass Plexx
  • Dominance
  • Beast Super Halo
  • Xtreme Stack
  • M-Sten Rx
  • Pro Mag 25
  • Epi Plex
  • Bolodrone XT
  • Anabolic H-D
  • 11-Sterone
  • Trenavar
  • Msten Extreme Mass Builder
  • Barbarian FX-Mass
  • Epibolan
  • Xtreme Tren Six
  • Triumphalis
  • Reaper
  • Finaflex 1-Andro
  • Xtreme DMZ
  • Xtreme H-50
  • Xtreme Mass
  • 1,4 Andro Maxx
  • Razor-EX-Pro
  • Beast Epi 18
  • Mammoth DNA
  • Sasquatch DNA Pure Mass
  • RA Mass/Strength Formula
  • RA Strength/Shred Formula
  • 2B-1 Pure Lean Mass
  • 2C-1 Intense Cutting Prohormone Formula
  • AMS 1-Andro Liquid
  • AMS 4-AD Liquid
  • Winsdrol Xtreme
  • Essential Carnivore - Advanced BCAA Complex
  • Elevated Organ Support
  • TUDCA
  • Liver-T
  • Cycle Assist
  • Milk Thistle
  • Organ Shield
  • LiverCare
  • Na-R-ALA
  • Liver Longer
  • RA Ultra Sphinx Pre Workout Formula
  • ERGOPURE
  • Methyl 1-D
  • Testavate 500
  • Forged: ATD
  • Reversitol V2
  • ZMA
  • Primaforce D-Aspartic-Acid
  • Pure Test
  • DAA Max
  • Post Cycle 3X
  • PCT Assist
  • Erase
  • PCT Revolution Black
  • Post Cycle Support
  • RA Silver Bullet PCT System
  • Natural PCT
  • Advanced Post Cycle Therapy
  • Stage II Evolution PCT Rejuvenation
  • Myostane X Ceuticore
  • 5A-LAXOGEN RX
  • SUPER NOR-ANDRO Rx
  • SUPER 1‐ANDRO Rx
  • Super DMZ Rx 4.0
  • SUPER EPI­-ANDRO Rx
  • N2 Guard
  • Super DMZ 2.0
  • Hexadrone
  • Halodrol
  • Furazadrol
  • Max-LMG
  • Formestane
  • Superdrol
  • 1-Andro
  • 4-Andro
  • Epiandro
  • 5aOHP
  • Bolderone
  • 6-Keto-Pregnane
  • Androtest
  • Liquidien
  • Protodrol
  • Nanodrol
  • Nano Mithras
  • Cynostane
  • XI-KT
  • Pheraplex
  • Methoxy-TST
  • Ergomax LMG
  • 11-Oxo
  • Propadrol
  • Methoxy-TRN
  • Max LMG
  • 3-AD
  • Dymethazine

Hormone Replacement Specialist

At Advance Therapy Hormone Centers, we have successfully treated over 20,000 patients with testosterone hormone deficiency or hormonal imbalance.

We offer the best prices and service on hormone replacement therapy including Testosterone, HCG Injections, Sermorelin and Injectable Human Growth Hormone. Our Board Certified physicians specialize in Anti-Aging Medicine and are Cleveland Clinic®, Mayo Clinic® and Cenegenics® trained.

For the best pricing, treatment options or more therapy information, fill out the Quick Info Form or contact us at (866) 342-5444


Stay informed about today's latest treatments aimed at extending your life span including Human Growth Hormone Therapy, get access to privileged information and advice for better health and longevity absolutely FREE.

Step 1: Request your HRT GUIDE to Longevity.
Step 2:
Learn about the HGH options available.
Step 3:
Contact us to set up a Free consultation.

SCHEDULE YOUR COMPLEMENTARY CONSULTATION WITH A SPECIALIST.










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Testosterone & Growth Hormone Products Approved for Use in the United States*
Product Manufacturer Indication (use)
Genotropin HGH (somatropin)
MiniQuick / GoQuick (somatropin)
Omnitrope HGH (somatropin)
Nutropin HGH (somatropin)
Nutropin AQ HGH (somatropin)
Nutropin Depot HGH (somatropin)
Protophin HGH (somatrem)
Humatrope HGH (somatropin)
Norditropin HGH (somatropin)
Saizen HGH (somatropin)
Serostim HGH (somatropin)
Zorbtive HGH (somatropin)
Tev-Tropin HGH (somatropin)
Depo-Testosterone (Cypionate)
Delatestryl (Enanthate)
Sandoz Testosterone (Cypionate)
Watson Testosterone (Cypionate)
Paddock Testosterone (Cypionate)
Aveed® (Injectable Undecanoate)
VogelXO® (Gel)
Androgel® (Gel)
Fortesta® (Gel)
Axiron ® (Underarm Gel)



Pfizer
Pfizer
Sandoz
Genentech
Genentech
Genentech
ProBioMed
Eli Lilly
Novo Nordisk
Merck Serono
EMD Serono
EMD Serono
TEVA
Pfizer
Endo Pharma
Sandoz Pharma
Watson Pharma
Paddock Pharma
Endo Pharma
Upshir-Smith
Abbvie
Endo Pharma
Eli Lilly
Pediatric GHD, CRI, TS, Adult GHD, pubertal dosing
Pediatric GHD, CRI, TS, Adult GHD, pubertal dosing
Pediatric GHD, CRI, TS, Adult GHD, pubertal dosing
Pediatric GHD, Adult GHD
Pediatric GHD, Adult GHD
Pediatric GHD, TS, Adult GHD
Pediatric GHD, Adult GHD
Pediatric GHD, PWS, SGA, Adult GHD
Pediatric GHD, Adult GHD
Pediatric GHD, Adult GHD
AIDS-related wasting, Adult GHD
AIDS-related wasting, Adult GHD
Pediatric GHD, PWS, SGA, Adult GHD
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
Hypogonadism, Erectile Dysfunction
*AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome;
CRI = chronic renal insufficiency;
GHD = growth hormone deficiency;
PWS = Prader-Willi syndrome; SGA = small for gestational age; TS = Turner syndrome.

 

HEALTHY AGING IS POSSIBLE!

Advance HRT Health Benefits

Young Appearance
Muscle Definition
Increased Energy
More Endurance
Boost Sex Drive
Better Skin Tone
Reduced Body Fat
Cholesterol Levels
Blood Pressure
Diminish Wrinkles
Eliminate Cellulite
Lower Stress Levels
Improved Sleep
Bone Density
Weight Loss

HGH Injection Guide

Saizen

Genotropin

Omnitrope

Norditropin

Nutropin

Humatrope

Tev-Tropin

Sermorelin

Testosterone Guide

Testosterone Gels

Testosterone Cypionate

Testosterone Enanthate

Testosterone Propionate


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American Academy of Anti-Aging and Regenerative Medicine       Age Management Medicine Group       Fellowship in Anti-Aging & Restorative Medicine       The Endocrine Society       Better Business Bureau A+ Rating

Advance Therapy provides hormone replacement therapy information, services and products including Testosterone, HCG and HGH. Medical Consultation, Age Management Physician Specialist, Testosterone Doctor, HGH Therapy Doctor, Anti-Aging and US Physician specialist referral is available for adult hormone deficiency related symptoms. We also provide diet, exercise and fitness, lifestyle change, healthy aging, IV therapy, detoxification and nutritional program information. No information on this website is intended to cure any medical or health condition and is solely for informational and educational purpose.

Copyright Advance Therapy, LLC All Rights Reserved 2003-2016

USE OF THIS SITE SIGNIFIES ACCEPTANCE OF THIS USER AGREEMENT: The information provided in this and our other sites is for educational purposes only, and it is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always consult your own physician or healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Hypertext links to other sites are for the convenience of our Web site viewers and do not constitute any endorsement. We are not responsible for the content of linked sites in any way.

IMPORTANT: NO PRESCRIPTION WILL BE PROVIDED UNLESS A CLINICAL NEED EXISTS BASED ON REQUIRED LAB WORK, PHYSICIAN CONSULTATION, PHYSICAL EXAMINATION AND CURRENT MEDICAL HISTORY. PLEASE NOTE, AGREEING TO LAB WORK AND PHYSICAL EXAM DOES NOT GUARANTEE A FINDING OF CLINICAL NECESSITY AND A PRESCRIPTION FOR HORMONE THERAPY, HORMONE REPLACEMENT TREATMENT OR PRESCRIPTION HORMONE MEDICATIONS INCLUDING TESTOSTERONE, HCG AND HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH INJECTIONS). These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. No claim or opinion on the Advance Therapy, HRT and Rejuvenation website is intended to be nor should it be construed to be medical advice or hormone diagnosis. Please consult with a healthcare professional before starting any therapeutic program including HRT - Hormone Replacement Therapy.